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INDEX >> NEWS >> Railway Wagon Introduction and Development

 

Railway wagons (railway freight car) vehicles used for the carriage of goods on the railway. To meet the vastly different types of goods in the national economy, we need a wide variety of vehicles to transport. General railway wagons to their different purposes, can be divided into general and special trucks trucks.

GM truck shipment of general cargo trucks, but many types of goods is not fixed. Railway wagons account for a larger proportion of those vans, generally have the following.

Gondola has an end, the roof of the truck without the side wall (Figure 1), mainly for transporting coal, ore, mine construction materials, wood, steel and other bulk cargo use, little weight can also be used to transport machinery and equipment. If the goods are shipped to blur the awning canvas or other waterproof material, the carrier may be afraid of rain instead of boxcar cargo. So gondola has great versatility, the largest number in the van composition; more than about 50% of the total truck. Gondola in different ways by unloading can be divided into two categories: one is suitable for manual or mechanical handling operations generic gondola; the other is for large industrial and mining enterprises, stations, grouped into columns fixed transportation between terminals, with a dumper unloading gondola.

Figure 1 gondola

China from 1952 began manufacturing truck 50 t of C50 gondola, followed by manufacturing a truck 60 t of C65, C62, C62M, C62A, etc. gondola and load 61 t C64 gondola. C64 gondola gondola similar structure and C62A, the body from the chassis, wall, side wall composition, end sidewall and chassis together firmly. Body of weathering steel welded structure, both sides opened a side door, high-end sidewall of about 0.8 m or more and its structure has been improved and strengthened.

Boxcar side walls, end walls, floor and roof, on the sidewall of a truck door and window in Figure (2) for transporting afraid of the sun, rain, snow and goods, including a variety of cereal grains, day with equipment and other industrial and precious. Part of the boxcar can also transport personnel and horses. Many Chinese old boxcar type, load 30 t more for small cars. From 1953 onwards China began manufacturing truck 50 t, the volume of 101 m3, all-steel body of the P50 type boxcar. 1957 after the design and manufacture of load 60 t, the volume of 120m3 of P13, P60, P61 type boxcar; 1980 design and manufacture of P62 type boxcar; late 1990s produced a P63, P64 type boxcar. P63 type boxcar load 60 t, the volume of 137 m3, the body is welded steel structure, wood-lined interior fitted with steel plates and wooden floors, except for the need to prevent rain, snow and transporting goods more expensive, it can also be used shipment of personnel and horses, and chariots length of 16.438 m, construction speed 100 km / h.

Figure 2 boxcar

Flatcar primarily to transport steel, timber, automotive, machinery and equipment, or the weight of a large volume of cargo containers can be transported by means of other goods. With movable panels flat cars used to ship ore, sand, gravel and other bulk grain cargo. Flat car because there is no fixed side and end walls, so the role of each beam is fully borne by the car's chassis and longitudinal vertical load load bearing structure is typical of the chassis. Flatcar its structure and main flat wall with two kinds of activities, mainly models N12, N60, N 16 and N 17 and other. N 12 type flat side walls and end walls of the car is not active, only the composition of the steel chassis and flooring; activities N60 type vehicle equipped with flat steel frame made of wood and the end walls and side walls, each side wall has four block wall, can alone upside down; N 16 type flat car without sidewalls activities, but there is activity in the steel side panels, to overcome the shortage of wood end plate strength weakness. N17-type flat car events sidewall panels in larger quantities, the whole car a total of 12, you can make opening and closing lightweight.

Refrigerated trucks are transporting fish, meat, fruit, vegetables and other perishable goods used. These goods during shipment needs to maintain a certain temperature, humidity and ventilation conditions, refrigerated trucks fitted with insulation materials bodywork, interior and features a cooling device, a heating device, temperature measurement devices and ventilation devices, has refrigeration, insulation and heating three performance. Refrigerated truck body painted silver-gray appearance. Eli reflect sunlight and reduce radiant heat. Refrigerated trucks according to their different uses and internal devices can be divided into insulated trucks, ice hidden trucks, refrigerated trucks and mechanical heating refrigerated trucks. Insulation car is no refrigeration and heating equipment for refrigerated trucks; refrigerated trucks are equipped with a fridge with ice cooling refrigerated trucks; refrigerated vehicle is provided with cooling and heating heating equipment refrigerated trucks; mechanically refrigerated trucks are equipped mechanical refrigeration equipment (general also has electric heating device) refrigerated trucks. China's major production and use of refrigerated trucks refrigerated heated car (refrigerator type) and mechanical refrigerator car into two categories.

Refrigerators refrigerated heated car roof into the car side refrigerator freezer two. Difference between the two lies in the refrigerator car refrigerator heat setting position and interior air circulation in different directions. Mechanical refrigerator car by the structure, a single section of machinery and mechanical refrigerator car refrigerator car group (including goods vehicles and machines Cold cold generator car). By way of mechanical power and cooling can be divided into three categories refrigerated trucks: ① centralized power supply, centralized cooling EMU eleven whole train car by a centralized power generation, refrigeration car centralized refrigeration, using ammonia as a refrigerant, brine for refrigerants; ② centralized power supply, separate cooling EMU - by the centralized power generation car, the car is equipped with cargo per machine cold refrigeration refrigeration equipment alone, the use of freon as a refrigerant, forced air circulation; ③ single mechanical refrigerator car - vehicle on all vehicles equipped with centralized power generation and refrigeration equipment, refrigeration equipment, power generation and refrigeration can be used alone, can also be used centralized power supply. Refrigerated trucks models used in China are: refrigerators refrigerated heating car B11, B14, B16, B17 and mechanical refrigerator car B19, B20, B21, B23 and so on.

Refrigerators refrigerated heated car (B11 type) using wood type hybrid structure roof refrigerator cooling device. Floor, wall, roof and insulation body by a steel frame, double planks made components. Flooring on the chassis, in order to facilitate washing the vehicle floor to prevent moisture and cause corrosion layer is incorporated in the floor, covered in the upper layer of galvanized steel and wood in the upper wall of the lower part of the section height of 250mm or less. Can reveal the grid floor surface from the water discharge, goods piled on from the water grid. Central has a sidewall door. There are six ice on the roof of the mouth, containing the following six refrigerators. In order to improve the cooling performance with scattered outside the box welded cold tablets, inside and outside the refrigerator all galvanized steel to prevent corrosion of salt water. In addition, the car body also has a heating, ventilation, Thermometer and cargo suspension equipment.

Section five mechanical refrigerator car group (Figure 3) consists of a generator car and 四辆 Cold Cold goods vehicles. Code generator car hanging at one end of the car group, to facilitate the two pieces of EMU hang ten vehicles associated use. Between the power generator at one end with a side car door, easy to hang when two vehicles associated crew pass. Each cargo vehicles can be any transposition, turn around and connected. Cold cargo vehicle body is steel welded structure, and laying insulation. Larger volume between Central is loaded, top with ventilation channel between the loading and evaporators. Both ends of the machine body with separate rooms, each mounted between a refrigeration unit inside the machine. Plus plague by truck between the heater power to achieve, goods vehicle refrigeration or heating can be centrally controlled power distribution cabinet total vehicle can also be individually controlled in each cargo vehicle. In addition, the car also has a semiconductor temperature controller, the temperature of the goods can be noted between the requirements of the work automatically controlled refrigerator or heater. Centralized generation car is a vehicle for generating mechanical refrigerator car group use. Advantages of mechanical refrigerator car refrigerator-style ice compared to refrigerated trucks are: ① the entire vehicle can be kept uniform temperature and humidity requirements, and easier to regulate and control, can fully guarantee the quality of transport of goods; ② does not require the use of ice and ice equipment, save money and accelerate the flow of vehicles, reduce transportation costs; ③ not walk the length of the transport vehicle and transport residence time constraints, to ensure cargo security service.

B23-type five mechanical refrigerator car group

Four cold it is cold thin EMU special vehicles, a new separate refrigerated perishable goods. By the three cargo trucks and vehicles with a crew compartment components. EMU using ground refrigeration equipment cooling, to the top of the car containing the coolant container (ie freezing plate) "charge cold", so called frozen plate refrigerated trucks. There are 14 cars per cargo refrigeration panels, a charge of cold 10 h, when the interior temperature is maintained below -180 ℃, continuous operation 100 h. The car also has a thermostat plate on the car in a moderate: in the range of -12 ℃ ~ + 5 ℃ regulation.

Pot-shaped tank car vehicle lanes (Figure 4) for shipment of various liquids, liquefied gases and the like powdery goods. These goods include gasoline, crude oil, various viscous oil, vegetable oil, ammonia, alcohol, water, various chemical liquids, cement, lead oxide powder and the like. In rail transport tanker occupies a very important position in China can only produce 25 t truck in the early 1950s, the effective volume of the tank 30.5m3 only all-welded construction, and in 1953 designed and manufactured the load 50 t, the effective volume of 51m3 All-welded construction tankers, and later made effective volume of 60 m3, load 52 t and the effective volume of 77m3, various tanker truck 63 t, the volume of the largest tank is the effective volume of liquefied gas tanker 110m3, the tank was a fish-shaped .

Figure 4 tankers

Tanker truck marker refers to the weight of the past is filled with water, the load capacity of 50t ie 50m3. Now mark the shipment of oil based on actual load, calculated the proportion of acid and alkali. Due to a variety of liquids of different densities, the actual load shall be determined according to the nature of the transported goods. Therefore, the tanker loading capacity measured by volume.

Light oil tanker can be divided into categories according to use tankers, sticky oil tankers, acid and alkali tankers, liquefied gas tanker and powder goods tanker class; according to structural features can be divided into packets and no air bag air tankers, there is no chassis and chassis tankers, and lower the dump dump tank and so on.

China's tanker cars are mainly G70 new light tanker, volume 70 m3; T85 light of new liquid tanker, volume 70 m3; GH40 liquefied petroleum gas tanker, the volume of 96 m3; GF fiberglass tank, designed for the shipment of hydrochloric acid, the volume of 50 m3 ; GLB asphalt (insulation type) tankers, truck 58 t; bulk cement tanker (Figure 5) and so on. Although many tank cars, but are monocoque structure, most of the body are red tanker into two parts by the body and chassis. ① tank: a horizontal cylinder structure, simplified welded on plate, bottom and side panels made of. Spliced ​​form steel tank has two transverse joints and longitudinal seams. Sticky and some acid class tanker tanker tanker tank round out the bottom half of a double layer structure made of that package like a warm jacket, jacket can pass steam, the steam from the central heating set into the sides of the into the air intake, exhaust pipe emissions from both ends. In addition to the center and both ends bearing part, the entire lower half of the tank is heated sleeve wrap, about 40 m2 of heated area. ② chassis: the chassis and tank divided into two non-chassis. As the tanker tank itself has great rigidity, so the weight of the tank liquid is mainly borne by the tank, and then spread through the bracket and bolster bogie. Therefore the chassis of the tanker, whose main chassis to withstand the horizontal longitudinal traction impact. The channel made by the two beams, the central portion of the cover has a cover plate welded on the cover under the saddle tanks, poly cover the central hole or opening drain valve hole near the center of the disk portion of the beam stays above. Beam bolster and side room with side beams, mainly used to enhance the stiffness and transfer part of the ends of the longitudinal force to bolster. In addition, the chassis is also equipped with railings, board walk through the station, handrails, pedals and so on. No tanker chassis features between the two bolster the beam, side and cross beams, tank and tractor beams and bolster welded into one, in order to transfer longitudinal forces. It can reduce the tanker weight, give full play to the role of the tank carrying metal materials.

Figure 5 bulk cement special vehicle

Dedicated truck generally only one or a very few vehicles transporting goods.

Gondola for exclusive use with a dumper factories, mainly for shipment block granular cargo handling and use of mechanized way. When loading, grab or commercial aircraft from dropping funnel large block grain warehouse, will the chassis, floor have a great impact; whereas when using dumper unloading, and the need to flip the entire vehicle angle in order to make goods poured from the top of the body. This requires that the vehicle interior is smooth, the net loan-to facilitate unloading; body sidewall without doors, but on the side of the beam is larger than the required general gondola; hand brake wheel should not exceed the height of the end wall, so as not to break something. As Chinese design and manufacture of low-side C16G nowhere gondola, load 60 t, the volume of 50m3; CF nowhere gondola-type high-side, load 60 t; volume of 68m3; Cxl-Haul unit train with a gondola, load 73 t, can be realized Requirements overloaded and fast loading and unloading.

Flat wagon transporting cars and container flat cars. Container flat cars loaded cargo container parts of the size determined by the size. X6B type container flat cars loaded cabinet can be a long 40-foot container or tank 20 feet container 2, but also can ship 10 t container 6 or 45-foot long box International Container China Railway prescribed a . Container locking device has a fixed family of the bottom four corners of the container corresponding to the position. Journey lock device has a fixed spin lock for locking the country 10 t containers. Retractable rotary lock for locking various types of containers. Transport cars flat car body (Figure 6) is generally divided into two or three layers. Often using small-diameter wheels make flat car has a larger loading height. And a springboard for their own work down in the car.

Figure 6 SQ2 type car transported safely

Hopper car block granular bulk cargo shipment, mainly transporting coal, ore and grain. Can be classified according to their structure and there is no cover top two categories. Unhelpful hopper car body side wall of the funnel-shaped bearing steel welded structure, the same chassis and trucks in general, at each side of the lower part of the funnel are outside the side door open bottom, bottom door by a self-locking mechanical transmission means for opening and closing by means of compressed air or allow manual operation of the vehicle all the coal unloading. No cover gravel hopper cars have K13 type car, K16 and K18 type ore hopper car coal hopper car model (Figure 7) and so on. Covered hopper cars transporting grain and other bulk cargo major, no body is in the sidewall bearing beam structure. End of the lower inclined wall is made in the lower side and cross beams made of the space enclosed by three steel funnel, the funnel plate inclined 35 °, in order to unload the cargo Pal own slide, three discharge ports at the bottom of the gear Hand wheel rack discharge port opening and closing means for controlling the opening degree. Vehicles with four or six top hatch, hatch cover for the roller skate where there is pressure lock system that allows the hatch cover open light on and off dense paste. Covered hopper cars have K15 and K17 cement hopper grain hopper cars.

Figure 7 coal hopper car

Since rollover blocks for shipping goods to automatically flip unloading granular special vehicles. Unloading, by inverting means mounted on the chassis so that the air cylinder or the cylinder at 45 ° to the top of the vehicle body inclination angle by tilting the side walls and the linkage mechanism then automatically open, unloading cargo along the inclined floor to an orbital . This way high discharge efficiency, suitable for handling frequent mine transport, there are loads of 60 t of KF60 Self overturned truck 70 t of KF70 Self overturned, and load 100 t of KFy100 hydraulic self-rollover (Figure 8) and so on.

Figure 8 KFy100 hydraulic self rollovers

Livestock vehicles transporting pigs, sheep, chickens, ducks and other live poultry livestock vehicles. The car is generally divided into upper and lower layers, with adjustable gap wall, feed trough, water tanks and shops and other escort personnel.

With a suitable vehicle transporting live fish and fish fry equipment vehicles. There are several general car fishpond, and so that water circulation and aeration equipment.

Cement truck used to transport bulk cement in special vehicles. With closed bodywork and handling cement hatch.


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