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INDEX >> NEWS >> Brief Introduction of railway Freight Car

Railway transport vehicle used to carry goods. Early wooden railway wagons are the body's two-axle vehicle, only a few tons deadweight. Modern vehicles have a body good performance running gear and all-metal construction, the car is widely used corrosion resistant high strength low alloy steel, and some also use aluminum. Truck load is increasing. Some countries such as the United States tend to increase the axle load, while maintaining the same number of axes, the maximum allowable axle load of 29.8 tons, the load axis trucks can reach 90.7 tons, while the Soviet Union Railway maximum permissible axle load as 23.25 tons However, by increasing the number of axes approaches its eight shafts gondola and tanker loading capacity of 125 tons or more. China Railway has already eliminated the two-axle vehicle, existing trucks to the main axis, the average load of 26 tons of vehicles in 1949 increased to 52.7 tons in 1983, but by the circuit conditions, the current maximum allowable axle load of 21 t thus lorry load is generally about 60 tons.

Railway wagons loaded must ensure that goods in transit intact and easy loading and unloading. For this reason there are various types of trucks. Traditional truck into gondola, boxcar, flat car, tanker trucks and other five categories and insulation. With the development of social production, on the basis of the traditional truck has developed a variety of new vehicles. These vehicles are used to transport available in one or a few species of particular goods or use under certain conditions significant economic benefits, while under other conditions the efficiency is not high, which can be called a dedicated truck. Shipment of a variety of conventional cargo trucks required design can be called universal truck. Dedicated truck can better adapt to the requirements of cargo transportation, full use of the vehicle load, to ensure that the goods intact, and is conducive to the development of mechanization and automation of cargo handling, acceleration of the vehicle turnover, which in recent years has a great development in the countries of railway . But the advantages of GM trucks free car rates low, and therefore the importance of rail transport still has.

Only gondola floor, side walls and end walls and no roof van (Figure 1 gondola), is not afraid of rain in the shipment of coal, ore and other bulk cargo and bulk grain wood, steel, machinery and equipment used, can also be used for shipping small containers. China also used the gondola railway boxcar stamped tarpaulin instead of transporting some of the fear wet goods, thus gondola in the largest proportion of the total number of vehicles, by the end of 1983 was approximately 62%. Gondola has a different structure. China Railway Early gondola has opened the side door and down on the lower side door opening for easy manual handling; 60 tons gondola in the middle of the side wall opening with double fan outside the open side door, both for manual handling, but also available for forklift access, while along sidewall remain under the full length side doors facilitate removing granular cargo. Gondola in some countries, located on the bottom floor to open the door, shot the goods can thus automatically unloaded into rail located under the cargo space; some open gondola at the end of the wall to accommodate longer cargo. Adapt the dumper unloading cargo gondola shot often does not strengthen the door side wall, even in the body set up to strengthen the internal bracing. Some unit train gondola installation with the rotary coupler at one end (see coupler buffer device), do not pick the hook to flip unloading. Often used for shipping bulk cargo gondola shot, often take the appropriate body to shorten the length, height and width increase approach to improve vehicle weight per meter, which stand in the same line can increase the effective length of the train marshalling the number of vehicles to improve the train load.

Hopper car derived from the gondola of a special truck for shipment of bulk grain cargo. Its side walls inclined inward, with the lower portion of the hopper body disposed longitudinally or transversely. When unloading the hopper bottom door open, cargo unloaded automatically by its own gravity. Human or wind bottom door opening and closing. China Railway practice known as ore cars or trucks dump trucks, mostly belong to this category. Since the body can roll with the wind or hydraulic push to one side 40 ° ~ 45 °, while open side walls, so that the automatic unloading of cargo trucks, used to transport bulk or granular cargo. Due to the larger weight coefficient from rollovers usually only used for short-distance transport or mines internal use.

Activities on the roof of the truck plus live gondola car roof. Open roof crane can load and unload cargo. Cover the roof runs to avoid the rain and the goods were damaged. Living roof of vehicles used to transport unpackaged steel sheet, roll, senior wood products and other goods. Sunroof many forms: some use a crane to install or remove; others along the longitudinal body into three sections, Sec or when loading and unloading operations will bring to the front or rear; portrait of two fan made ​​some , or the end portion of the side surface with the opening and closing mechanism, a mechanical opening and closing forces; and other forms. 


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